a. The history of genetics At the end of the last ice age, roughly 10,000 B.C.E., humans began intensively cultivating plants into crops and domesticating animals. Agriculture and livestock breeding selected a modest set of desirable traits such as caloric content, palatability and medicinal value, while animal husbandry improved strength, stamina, appearance and behavioral profile … Continue reading Genetics

Immunity and the Institution of Health Care

It is unlikely that a mutation from changes to the genetic code during transcription of the DNA sequence has caused widespread alteration in traits of the human immune system, at least since the origin of our species, unless there is some phenomenon of transmission between individuals we know nothing about.  Beneficial mutations are too rare to alone be an explanation for … Continue reading Immunity and the Institution of Health Care